ACADEMIC TOPICS

credit default swap

A credit default swap (CDS) is a type of derivative contract in which two parties exchange the risk that some credit instrument will go into default. The buyer of a CDS agrees to make periodic payments to the seller. In exchange, the seller...

credit instrument

A credit instrument is a promissory note or other written evidence of a debt. Common examples include bonds, loans, checks, or invoices.

Credit instruments are used by governments, companies, and individuals alike.

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crime against humanity

Crimes against humanity are specific crimes committed in the context of a large-scale attack targeting civilians, regardless of their nationality. These crimes include the most egregious violations of human dignity, especially those directed...

crime against nature

Crime against nature is an umbrella term encompassing sexual offenses that are deemed “unnatural” or "contrary to the order of nature." Some jurisdictions have codified laws against the individual offenses. For example, California originally...

criminal case

A criminal case is a type of court proceeding in which a prosecutor employed by the federal, state, or local government charges a person with the commission of a crime. Criminal cases generally begin after the person is arrested and informed...

criminal insanity

Criminal insanity refers to a mental illness or disease that makes it impossible for a defendant to know they were committing a crime or to understand that their actions are wrong. A defendant found to be criminally insane can assert an...

criminal procedure

Overview:

Criminal procedure deals with the set of rules governing the series of proceedings through which the government enforces substantive criminal law. Municipalities, states, and the federal government each have their own criminal...

critical legal theory

Overview

Critical legal studies (CLS) is a theory which states that the law is necessarily intertwined with social issues, particularly stating that the law has inherent social biases. Proponents of CLS believe that the law supports the...

Cruzan v. Missouri Department of Health (1990)

Overview:

Cruzan v. Missouri Department of Health (1990) is an important United States Supreme Court case involving an incompetent young adult and the “right to die.” This case was the first "right to die" case heard by the Supreme Court. In...

cumis counsel

The term cumis counsel is taken from the case San Diego Federal Credit Union v. Cumis Ins. Society. Cumis counsel refers to an independent attorney hired by an insurance company to represent the defendant in cases with a strong conflict of...

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