ACADEMIC TOPICS

Carbon Offset

Carbon offset is a method of controlling carbon dioxide emissions by counteracting emissions with another action that reduces carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. There are a variety of means to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere such as...

Carbon Offsets

In cap-and-trade programs, carbon offsets are activities such as planting trees or carbon capture that legally offset the amount of carbon that a polluting entity has emitted.

Cartel

A cartel is a group of independent corporations or other entities that join together to fix prices, rig bids, allocate markets, or conduct other similar illegal activities. Cartel conducts are mainly subject to criminal penalties under United States...

Case Law

Case law is law that is based on judicial decisions rather than law based on constitutions, statutes, or regulations. Case law concerns unique disputes resolved by courts using the concrete facts of a case. By contrast, statutes and regulations...

Case System

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryThe method of studying law used in most American law schools, in which students read and outline (brief) appellate opinions (cases), then hear lectures about them and discuss them. Each case stands for a...

Cash Method of Accounting

An accounting method where income is included when it is actually received and deductions claimed when expenses are actually paid.

Cashier's Check

A cashier’s check is a bill of exchange, drawn by a bank upon itself (the bank is the debtor), payable to another person, showing the payee’s authorization to receive the amount represented on the check from the bank.

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Certainty Effect

A tendency to spend more time or money looking for information than justified by its probable value, simply because the decision maker thinks it might turn some claim into a total certainty. Thus, information that may increase a probability of...

Cf.

Abbreviation for the Latin word confer, meaning "compare." Cf. is a signal indicating that the cited source supports a different claim than the one just made, but that it is worthwhile to compare the two claims and assess the difference....

Challenge

1. In general, any expressed doubt about the qualification of a person for some task, or about the legality of an action or thing.

2. With respect to juries, a party's request to dismiss a potential juror - or even an entire jury panel that...

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