ACADEMIC TOPICS

Challenge for Cause

A challenge that aims to disqualify a potential juror for some stated reason. Typical reasons include bias, prejudice, or prior knowledge that would prevent impartial evaluation of the evidence presented in court.

Challenge to the Array

A challenge that seeks to disqualify an entire jury panel assembled up until this point. The reason usually given is that the selection of the jury panel violated some rule designed to produce impartial juries drawn from a fair cross-section of the...

Chambers

The personal rooms of a judge where he or she may hear matters in private.

Champerty

A relationship arises when third parties unrelated to a litigation provide material support to litigants in exchange for consideration contingent on the outcome of the litigation. Often that relationship–between the third party and the...

Chance Verdict

A verdict that is reached not through deliberation, but through chance. Thus, in a close case without agreement, some jurors might wish to flip a coin and let fate determine the winner of the case. Chance verdicts are now illegal in the U.S.

Chancellor

In the old English legal system, a chancellor is a judge who sit in a chancery court—an equity court. In equity courts, the chancellor has the power to order acts rather than damages. As a result, injunctions, specific performance and vacatur are...

Chancery

Chancery originated in Medieval England as a distinct court of equity, named for the Lord Chancellor. In its earliest form, those who were unable to obtain an adequate common law remedy could petition the King of England, who would refer the...

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy

When a company can no longer pay its debts, it generally creates a relationship between two stakeholders–the debtor and creditors. The debtor seeks relief from the debt it cannot repay, while the creditors seek to recollect their debts, quickly and...

Chapter 12 Bankruptcy

In 1986, Congress enacted Chapter 12 of the Bankruptcy Code to allow farmer debtors with regular annual income to achieve debt relief. Accordingly, chapter 12 bankruptcy provides relief to debtors who qualify as family farmers and...

Chapter 13 Bankruptcy

In general, insolvent individuals have the choice of either a chapter 7 or chapter 13 bankruptcy, each governed by the United States Bankruptcy Code. Chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Code is titled "Adjustment of Debts of an Individual With Regular...

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