constitutional law


Generally, freedom from legal obligation to perform actions or to suffer penalties, as in "immunity from prosecution". Specific types of immunity are separately defined and discussed.

See also:Diplomatic immunityFederal Tort Claims...


What is Impeachment?

Technically, impeachment is the Senate's quasi-criminal proceeding instituted to remove a public officer, not the actual act of removal. Most references to impeachment, however, encompass the entire process, beginning with the...

Impeachment of a witness

At trial, impeachment is the process of attacking the accuracy of witnesses' testimony. For example, if a witness's testimony at trial contradicts her earlier sworn statements, one or both parties might bring up the sworn statement to impeach her...


1. Formed into a legal corporation. Both private and public entities may become incorporated. See Corporation, Municipality, Artificial person, and Natural person.

2. Combined or mixed in with something else. Thus, in constitutional law, an...

Incorporation Doctrine


The incorporation doctrine is a constitutional doctrine through which the first ten amendments of the United States Constitution (known as the Bill of Rights) are made applicable to the states through the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth...


Impoverished, or unable to afford the necessities of life. A defendant who is indigent has a constitutional right to court-appointed representation, according to a 1963 Supreme Court decision, Gideon v. Wainright.

Intermediate Scrutiny

Overview Intermediate scrutiny is a test courts will use to determine a statute's constitutionality. Intermediate scrutiny is only invoked when a state or the federal government passes a statute which negatively affects certain protected classes (this is...

Invidious discrimination

Treating a class of persons unequally in a manner that is malicious, hostile, or damaging.

Judicial Review

Judicial review is the idea, fundamental to the US system of government, that the actions of the executive and legislative branches of government are subject to review and possible invalidation by the judiciary. Judicial review allows the Supreme Court...


A jury is group of people empowered to make findings of fact. During a court trial, the jury decides the truth of disputed facts while the judge decides the rules of law, including whether particular evidence will be presented to the jury.