Accusatory Instrument

Generic term that describes a variety of documents (such as a criminal complaint) that accuse a defendant of an offense.



A person who has been arrested for or formally charged with a crime.

Illustrative case law

Regarding rights of the accused, see, e.g. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966).

See alsoAccusationRights of Accused in Criminal...


1) To accept, recognize, confirm, or admit the existence or truth of something.

2) To validate an identity or claim.

3) To authenticate an instrument or writing by declaration or statement under oath by...


1. A declaration before an official that one has executed a particular legal document.

2. An official certificate of a formal acknowledging.

3. A public recognition by a man of an illegitimate child as his own.

- From


1. A judicial proceeding that involves either civil or criminal claims. An action is brought by one or more plaintiffs against one or more defendants.

2. In general, the process of doing something.

Actual Controversy

An actual controversy is a constitutional requirement (Found in found in Art. III, Section 2, Clause 1) for federal courts that demands there be a real dispute between two parties capable of being resolved by the court, as opposed to a hypothetical...

Actual Notice

Someone receiving notice (being informed of a case that could affect their interest - see: Notice) in fact, as opposed to Constructive Notice (where although that person did not receive notice in fact, the law will consider them to have received notice...

Ad Hoc

This phrases mean “for this purpose only.” Its literal translation from the Latin is “to this.”

Common examples are an ad hoc committee or an ad hoc commission created for a specific or one-time purpose to address issues that fall outside...

Adequate Remedy

An adequate remedy is one that affords complete relief with reference to the particular matter in controversy, and which is appropriate to the circumstances of the case. An adequate remedy has also been described as a remedy that is complete,...


To end a meeting.

For example: The court adjourned for the day and everyone went home.