courts and procedure



In general, a place or location in which something takes place. The proper place to hold a civil or criminal trial, usually because important related events have taken place there.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. Cortez Byrd Chips, Inc. v...



Truthfulness or accuracy of a person or statement.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts, 129 S.Ct. 2527, 2537 n.6 (2009).

See also


Perjury (contrast)


Verbatim means to use exactly the same words as another; usually when transcribing, quoting, or recording the original material word for word, such as making a verbatim transcript in a proceeding.

[Last updated in May of 2022 by the...



A jury's findings or conclusions on the factual issues presented by a case. Sometimes, the term also refers to the judge's resolution of issues in a bench trial.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220 (2005...



A declaration swearing that statements made in a document are true. Depending on the jurisdiction, verifications are either made under oath or in the presence of a notary public or similarly authorized person. Verifications are traditionally...



Against. Abbreviated as v. and vs. Used in case names, e.g. McDonald v. Chicago, 130 S.Ct. 3020 (2010).

See also

Adverse party

Void for vagueness


1) In criminal law, a declaration that a law is invalid because it is not sufficiently clear. Laws are usually found void for vagueness if, after setting some requirement or punishment, the law does not specify what is required or what...

Voir dire

French for "to speak the truth." The process through which potential jurors from the venire are questioned by either the judge or a lawyer to determine their suitability for jury service. Also the preliminary questioning of witnesses (especially...

weight of evidence

Weight of evidence is the believability or persuasiveness of evidence in probative value, not the quantity or amount of evidence. Weight of evidence is not determined by mathematics, but depends on its effect in inducing belief. In State v....


A witness is someone with firsthand knowledge of an event, or a person who sees a second person sign a document, then adds their own signature confirming (or attesting) that the first signature is genuine.

A witness may...