courts and procedure


The term “unreasonable” refers to any action or result that exceeds a reasonable expectation, or refers to anything beyond what would be considered “common sense.” In criminal cases, the prosecutor should explain the evidence so clearly that...



An abbreviation for versus, meaning against. Used in case names, e.g. McDonald v. Chicago, 130 S.Ct. 3020 (2010).

See also

Adverse party


In civil and criminal procedure: To set aside or annul a previous judgment or order. In property law: To surrender or leave the premises.

See, e.g. Sears v. Upton, 130 S.Ct. 3259 (2010) (a judgment) and Thorpe v. Housing...


Latin for "it is vacated." A rule or order that sets aside a judgment or annuls a proceeding.

See, e.g. Monsanto Co. v. Geertson Seed Farms, 130 S.Ct. 2743 (2010).

See also



Vague means hazy, uncertain, or imprecise. Used in reference to words — especially sentences and paragraphs — that are not clearly expressed. A criminal statute is void for vagueness if it is so vague that it fails to give a person fair notice of what...

vagueness doctrine

1) A constitutional rule that requires criminal laws to state explicitly and definitely what conduct is punishable. Criminal laws that violate this requirement are said to be void for vagueness. Vagueness doctrine rests on the due process clauses of...

Vega v. Tekoh (2022)

Vega v. Tekoh (2022) is the Supreme Court case that ruled a Miranda Rights violation does not provide a basis for relief under 42 U.S. Code § 1983.


The case involved the interrogation of Terence Tekoh by the...



A panel of prospective jurors. A jury is eventually chosen from the venire.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. Skilling v. United States, 130 S.Ct. 2896 (2010).

See also

Jury duty

Jury selection


venire facias

A writ from a judge directing a sheriff to assemble prospective jurors. Sometimes abbreviated as venire.

See, e.g. Powers v. United States, 223 U.S. 303 (1912).

See also

Jury duty

Jury selection


venire facias de novo

A writ from a judge summoning a new jury panel because of a problem with the original jury's verdict or return. A venire facias de novo results in a new trial. Sometimes abbreviated as venire de novo.

See, e.g. Parsons v. Bedford, Breedlove...