local governmental law



To formally annul or repeal a law through an act of the legislature, constitutional authority, or custom. In contract and insurance law, it is to rescind or terminate a contract.

In constitutional law, the abrogation doctrine...

Absentee Ballot


A paper ballot submitted, before an election day and often by mail, by a voter who is unable to attend the official polling station on election day. Also called absentee vote.



A federal court's decision not to exercise jurisdiction over a case. The usual goal of abstention is the avoidance of needless conflict with a state court. See Federalism.

Abstention: an overview

Abstention is a doctrine under which...

Abstention Doctrine

See alsoAbstention


Alcohol, Tobacco, and Controlled Substances: An Overview

Health and other public concerns have generated detailed Federal and state regulation of the sale and possession of alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, and a wide range of other "controlled...

Chapter 9 Bankruptcy

Chapter 9 of the Bankruptcy Code provides a legal remedy for insolvent municipalities to "provide adequate municipal services" to residents. Specifically, the provisions permit municipalities to file for bankruptcy and address their...


1. Broadly, the highest law of an entity. More specifically:

(a) In corporate law, the articles of incorporation.

(b) In public law, the instrument by which a municipality is incorporated (e.g., city charter). This type of charter...

Civil Code

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryIn many states, the name for the collection of statutes and laws that deal with business and negligence lawsuits and practices.

Definition provided by Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary.

Civil Union

A civil union is a marriage-like relationship. It is often between members of the same sex.

Beginning of Civil Union

Vermont was the first state in the US to recognize civil unions. The state supreme court ruled in Baker v. State of...

Civil Union Partners

Civil union partners are partners who are in a civil union relationship. The exact level of rights, benefits, obligations, and responsibilities of civil union partners varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. For example, some jurisdictions allow...